Poor communities rarely benefit from global emissions trading schemes, because of the high transaction costs of participation. However, the registration of small community-scale projects to the carbon market through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) might be a way for low-income communities to profit from their efforts to reduce emissions.
The Mantaro Valley in central Peru is highly vulnerable to extreme weather events, such as droughts, floods, and frost. According to recent projections, this vulnerability will increase in coming years due to climate change.
Research shows that weather-related emergencies, such as floods, significantly increase internal migration in Costa Rica. An increase of one hydro-meteorological emergency raises migration rates between 0.7 and 0.11 percentage points. Therefore, migration can be a potential adaptation strategy when faced with weather-related emergencies, with people moving to less vulnerable places.
For five years, Pakistan has been impacted by large-scale natural disasters. The worst in the country’s history occurred in 2010, when a series of floods covered one-fifth of its territory, affecting 20 million people.