The links between social exclusion and violence have been much studied. But how does the relationship play out in the domestic sphere? Research published in 2016 by the Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales (FLACSO) and the University of Costa Rica suggests that forms of social exclusion practiced at home can generate violence that affects not only family members but members of the wider community. Their analysis is based on household surveys conducted in several urban areas of Costa Rica and El Salvador.
Results from IDRC-supported research at the Université de Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), show that unregulated population growth — averaging 10 births per woman — combined with a lack of education and economic opportunities for impoverished youth, contribute to the proliferation of youth gangs who terrorize cities like Kinshasa and Mbuji-Mayi.