The Mantaro Valley in central Peru is highly vulnerable to extreme weather events, such as droughts, floods, and frost. According to recent projections, this vulnerability will increase in coming years due to climate change.
Research shows that weather-related emergencies, such as floods, significantly increase internal migration in Costa Rica. An increase of one hydro-meteorological emergency raises migration rates between 0.7 and 0.11 percentage points. Therefore, migration can be a potential adaptation strategy when faced with weather-related emergencies, with people moving to less vulnerable places.
For five years, Pakistan has been impacted by large-scale natural disasters. The worst in the country’s history occurred in 2010, when a series of floods covered one-fifth of its territory, affecting 20 million people.
The state of Punjab spearheaded the Green Revolution that has transformed Indian agriculture. Encouraged by price guarantees, expanded irrigation, and the introduction of high-yielding crop varieties, Punjabi farmers have shifted toward intensive production of grains.