The past two decades have witnessed a significant change in the environment for research and development (R&D) around the world. In the South, the need for scientific knowledge continues to expand. At the same time, however, traditional sources of research funding – from national governments, international agencies, and the donor community – have stagnated or declined. As a result, private sector funding of R&D is now twice that of public sector sources.
Changes in the balance of funding are an important marker of evolution in the nature of research systems, with critical implications for public policy and the management of scientific institutions. This book analyzes alternative policy instruments and compares experiences in Argentina, El Salvador, Costa Rica, the Philippines, Malaysia, Peru, Tanzania, and China. It addresses trends in funding, performance, and management of R&D, and policy options to stimulate R&D in and for developing countries.
This book will be of interest to researchers, decision-makers, policy advisors, and educators in science, technology, and innovation studies, as well as to development practitioners and professionals around the world.
Michael Graham is a specialist in development communication, evaluation, and science editing and writing.
At the time of the book's publication, Jean Woo was a program officer in the Innovation, Policy and Science program at the International Development Research Centre.